(Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad Al-Biruni was born in the Republic of Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan on the 4th September 973 )
One of the greatest scientists of all time. Al-Biruni, a pioneering Uzbek, Muslim scientist figured out a truly remarkable and ingenious method to calculate the radius of the earth (and subsequently its circumference). This method was very simple yet accurate, requiring just four measurements in all to be taken and then applying a trigonometric equation to arrive at the solution. What Biruni figured out with unprecedented accuracy and precision in the 10th century was not known to the west until the 16th century.